Scientific Name:
Blechnum fluviatile (R.Br.) Lowe ex Salomon (1883)
  • Stegania fluviatilis R.Br. (1810)
  • Lomaria fluviatilis (R.Br.) Spreng. (1827)
  • Spicanta fluviatilis (R.Br.) Kuntze (1891)
  • = Lomaria rotundifolia Colenso (1843)
  • = Lomaria rotundifolia Raoul (1844)
  • = Lomaria fluviatilis var. ramosa Colenso, Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 20: 225 (1888 [1887])
Vernacular Name(s):
Kawakawa; Kiwakiwa; Kiwikiwi; Ray water fern
Rhizome stout, erect, clad in brown subulate-attenuate paleae c. 1 cm. long; stipites numerous, tufted, paleate at base. Stipes 5–20 cm. long, slender to stout, dark brown, procumbent to ascending, ± paleate, bearing up to 50 pairs of pinnae. Sterile lamina 25–40–(75) × 2–4 cm., linear to narrow-linear, spreading, dull green, submembr. Pinnae up to 2 × 1 cm., oblong to obovate-oblong, slightly narrowed to sessile base or very shortly stalked, subopp. to alt., minutely crenulate-dentate to sinuate. Fertile lamina erect, up to 30 cm. long, linear; pinnae ascending to erect, linear-oblong, up to 2 cm. long. Sori covering whole of undersurface, indusium becoming erose.
[From: Allan (1961) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 1.]
Indigenous (Non-endemic)
Brownsey, P.J.; Smith-Dodsworth, J.C. 2000: New Zealand ferns and allied plants. Edition 2. David Bateman, Auckland.
Colenso, W. 1888: On newly discovered and imperfectly known ferns of New Zealand, with critical observations. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 20: 212–234.
de Lange, P.J.; Rolfe, J.R.; Barkla J.W.; Courtney, S.P.; Champion, P.D.; Perrie, L.R.; Beadel, S.N.; Ford, K.A.; Breitwieser, I.; Schönberger, I.; Hindmarsh-Walls, R.; Heenan, P.B.; Ladley, K. 2018: Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2017. New Zealand Threat Classification Series No. 22. [Not Threatened]
de Lange, P.J.; Rolfe, J.R.; Champion, P.D.; Courtney, S.P.; Heenan, P.B.; Barkla, J.W.; Cameron, E.K.; Norton, D.A.; Hitchmough, R.A. 2013: Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 3. Department of Conservation, Wellington. [Not Threatened]