Based on: P.J. Brownsey & L.R. Perrie (2014)
Taxon profile for this taxon
Taxon Profile

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Microsorum pustulatum (G.Forst.) Copel.

Microsorum pustulatum: mature plant growing terrestrially showing diversity of lamina shape. Image: Leon Perrie © Leon Perrie 2011
Microsorum pustulatum: mature plant growing terrestrially showing diversity of lamina shape. Image: Leon Perrie © Leon Perrie 2011

Classification

Nomenclature

Scientific Name:
Microsorum pustulatum (G.Forst.) Copel., Gen. Fil., 196 (1947) — as Microsorium pustulatum
Synonymy:
  • Polypodium pustulatum G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr., 81 (1786)
  • Phymatosorus pustulatus (G.Forst.) Large, Braggins & P.S.Green, New Zealand J. Bot. 30: 207 (1992) — as Phymatosorus pustulatum
Lectotype selected by Pichi Sermolli 1951: New Zealand, G. Forster, BM 000066256!
  • = Polypodium scandens Labill., Nov. Holl. Pl. 2, 91, t.240 (1807 [1806]) nom. illeg.
  • = Polypodium diversifolium Willd., Sp. Pl. 5 (1), 166 (1810) nom. nov. pro Polypodium scandens Labill. 1807 [1806]
  • Microsorum diversifolium (Willd.) Copel., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 16: 114 (1929) — as Microsorium diversifolium
  • Pleopeltis diversifolia (Willd.) Melvaine, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 61: 120 (1936)
  • Phymatodes diversifolium (Willd.) Pic.Serm., Webbia 8: 222 (1951)
  • Phymatosorus diversifolius (Willd.) Pic.Serm., Webbia 28: 459 (1973)
Lectotype (selected by Brownsey & Perrie 2012): based on Polypodium scandens Labill., Nov. Holl. Pl. 2: 91, t. 240 (1807) nom. illeg., non G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. 81 (1786). Nova Hollandia, [Tasmania], J.J.H.de Labillardière, FI 004-209 (image!)
  • = Polypodium billardierei R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland., 147 (1810)
  • Phymatodes billardierei (R.Br.) C.Presl, Tent. Pterid., 196 (1836)
  • Chrysopteris billardierei (R.Br.) Link, Fil. Spec., 123 (1841)
  • Drynaria billardierei (R.Br.) J.Sm., Companion Bot. Mag. New Ser. 2: 14 (1846)
  • Pleopeltis billardierei (R.Br.) T.Moore, Index Fil., Ixxviii (1857)
  • Polypodium scandens var. billardierei (R.Br.) F.Muell., Veg. Chatham Isl., 69 (1864)
Lectotype (selected by Tindale 1961): Port Dalrymple, [Tasmania], R. Brown Iter Austral. 11, Jan. 1804, BM 001038373!
Etymology:
From the Latin pustulatus (having pustules), a reference to the impressed sori forming bulges on the upper lamina surface.
Vernacular Name(s):
hound's tongue; kōwaowao; pāraharaha

Description

Epiphytic and terrestrial; creeping or climbing fern. Rhizomes long-creeping, 3–11 mm diameter, scaly. Rhizome scales clathrate, ovate, 3–7 mm long, 1–2 mm wide, mostly appressed but with the tips sometimes squarrose, blackish-brown, entire. Fronds 45–750 mm long. Stipes 10–350 mm long, pale to chocolate brown, glabrous or with very scattered scales. Laminae very varied, from undivided or variously lobed to deeply 1-pinnatifid; undivided laminae (fertile) narrowly elliptic, 35–220 mm long, 6–30 mm wide, or (sterile) longer and broader, up to 260 mm long and 70 mm wide; lobed or pinnatifid laminae (fertile) ovate to elliptic or broadly ovate to broadly elliptic, 50–425 mm long, 35–350 mm wide, or (sterile) up to 420 mm long and 300 mm wide; lamina extending 5–40 mm below the lowest lobe, bright glossy green, coriaceous, glabrous or with scattered scales on the costae. Lamina lobes (fertile) in 1–15 pairs, 25–185 mm long, 4–30 mm wide, or (sterile) less numerous and wider, in up to 10 pairs and up to 60 mm wide; straight, acute to acuminate, margins entire or wavy, widest about the middle. Veins reticulate, forming 2–3 series of areoles between costa and lobe margin; hydathodes conspicuous on adaxial surface of lamina. Sori round or rarely elliptic, 2.5–5 mm wide, impressed into lamina forming low bulges on adaxial surface, in 1 row either side of costa, medial or closer to the lobe margin; paraphyses absent; exindusiate.

Recognition

This is the commonest and most variable of the three species of Microsorum in New Zealand. It can be distinguished by its thick rhizomes (> 4 mm diameter) with appressed blackish-brown scales, its very variable fronds (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 2000), coriaceous and bright glossy green laminae, conspicuous veins and hydathodes on the upper lamina surface, and broad lamina lobes.

Occasional aberrant forms are found - either crested at the apices or with 2-pinnatifid laminae.

Only one subspecies is present in New Zealand. Microsorum pustulatum subsp. howense (Tindale et P.S.Green) Bostock is recognised as endemic to Lord Howe Island (Green 1994). It is distinguished by having rhizome scales which are abruptly acuminate and 1.5-3.3 mm wide, laminae which are usually divided to the rachis into adnate pinnae, and sori which are deeply sunken into the lamina and usually either submarginal or about one third of the way to the costa.

Distribution

Microsorum pustulatum distribution map based on databased records at AK, CHR and WELT. Image: K. Boardman © Landcare Research 2014
Microsorum pustulatum distribution map based on databased records at AK, CHR and WELT. Image: K. Boardman © Landcare Research 2014
North Island: Northland, Auckland, Volcanic Plateau, Gisborne, Taranaki, Southern North Island.
South Island: Western Nelson, Sounds-Nelson, Marlborough, Westland, Canterbury, Otago, Southland, Fiordland.
Kermadec Islands, Three Kings Islands, Chatham Islands, Solander Island, Stewart Island, Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands.

Altitudinal range: 0 - 900 m.

Abundant throughout the North Island from near sea-level to c. 700 m; more common in coastal and lowland regions of the South Island, extending locally to c. 900 m but largely absent from inland high country regions and much of Otago.

Also Australia (Queensland, NSW, ACT, Victoria, Tasmania), Norfolk Island.

Habitat

Creeping and often covering extensive areas on the ground, growing over rocks or fallen logs, on cliffs and banks, or epiphytic on native and naturalised trees. Occurs in coastal to montane forest, pine forest, scrub, scoria and open areas, usually in slightly drier habitats, extending into subalpine scrub in the southern South Island.

Biostatus

Indigenous (Non-endemic)
Number of subspecific taxa in New Zealand within Microsorum pustulatum (G.Forst.) Copel.
CategoryNumber
Indigenous (Non-endemic)1
Total1

Cytology

n = 37 (Brownlie 1954, as Microsorium diversifolium).

Notes

This species has been widely known as Phymatosorus diversifolius (e.g. Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 2000), Microsorum diversifolium (e.g. Crookes 1963) or Phymatodes diversifolium (e.g. Allan 1961), combinations based on Polypodium diversifolium Willd. collected in Tasmania by Labillardière. An earlier basionym, Polypodium pustulatum G.Forst., was for many years considered a “species dubia” because of the inadequate type specimen lacking a rhizome, which could not be distinguished as either diversifolium or novae-zealandiae (Pichi Sermolli 1951). However, on the basis of spore morphology Large et al. (1992a) showed conclusively that the specimen is the same as the former, and that the name P. pustulatum should take priority. Hence the species is now recognised as Microsorum pustulatum (Large et al. 1992a, 1992b).

Robert Brown’s Polypodium billardieri, and names based on his type from Port Dalrymple, are later synonyms. The name Polypodium phymatodes L. used by Richard (1832) is a misidentification.

Images

  • Microsorum pustulatum: prominent reticulate veins, white hydathodes and soral bulges on upper side of lamina. Image: L.R. Perrie © Te Papa 2011 CC-BY NC ND 3.0 NZ
    Microsorum pustulatum: prominent reticulate veins, white hydathodes and soral bulges on upper side of lamina. Image: L.R. Perrie © Te Papa 2011 CC-BY NC ND 3.0 NZ
  • Microsorum pustulatum: thick, creeping rhizome with widely spaced, blackish-brown, appressed rhizome scales. Image: L.R. Perrie © Leon Perrie 2011
    Microsorum pustulatum: thick, creeping rhizome with widely spaced, blackish-brown, appressed rhizome scales. Image: L.R. Perrie © Leon Perrie 2011
  • Microsorum pustulatum: juvenile frond with reticulate venation and free included veinlets ending in hydathodes. Image: Te Papa © Te Papa 2011
    Microsorum pustulatum: juvenile frond with reticulate venation and free included veinlets ending in hydathodes. Image: Te Papa © Te Papa 2011
  • Microsorum pustulatum: underside of lamina with large, round or ovate, exindusiate sori and prominent reticulate veins. Image: L.R. Perrie © Leon Perrie 2011
    Microsorum pustulatum: underside of lamina with large, round or ovate, exindusiate sori and prominent reticulate veins. Image: L.R. Perrie © Leon Perrie 2011

Bibliography

Bostock, P.D.; Spokes, T.M. 1998: Polypodiaceae. In: Flora of Australia. Vol. 48. 468–495.
Brown, R. 1810: Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van-Diemen. Johnson, London.
Brownlie, G. 1954: Introductory note to cyto-taxonomic studies of New Zealand ferns. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 82: 665–666. [as Microsorum diversifolium (Willd.) Copel.]
Brownlie, G. 1958: Chromosome numbers in New Zealand ferns. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 85: 213–216.
Brownsey, P.J.; Perrie, L.R. 2012: Taxonomic notes on the New Zealand flora: lectotypes and excluded taxa in the fern family Polypodiaceae. New Zealand Journal of Botany 50: 179–184.
Brownsey, P.J.; Perrie, L.R. 2014: Polypodiaceae (excluding Notogrammitis). In: Breitwieser, I; Heenan, P.B.; Wilton, A.D. Flora of New Zealand — Ferns and Lycophytes. Fascicle 1. Lincoln, Manaaki Whenua Press.
Brownsey, P.J.; Smith-Dodsworth, J.C. 2000: New Zealand ferns and allied plants. Edition 2. David Bateman, Auckland.
Copeland, E.B. 1929: The Oriental genera of Polypodiaceae. University of California Publications in Botany 16: 45–128.
Copeland, E.B. 1947: Genera Filicum. Chronica Botanica Co, Waltham, Mass., U.S.A.
Crookes, M.E. 1963: New Zealand Ferns, ed. 6. Incorporating illustrations and original work by H.B. Dobbie. Whitcombe & Tombs, Christchurch, N.Z. [as Microsorum diversifolium (Willd.) Copel.]
de Labillardière, J.J.H. 1806: Novae Hollandiae Plantarum Specimen. Vol. Vol. 2. Huzard, Paris.
Forster, J.G. 1786: Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus. Dietrich, Göttingen.
Large, M.F.; Braggins, J.E.; Green, P.S. 1992a: A new combination for Polypodium pustulatum Forster f. (Polypodiaceae). New Zealand Journal of Botany 30: 207–208 (372).
Large, M.F.; Braggins, J.E.; Green, P.S. 1992b: The identity of Polypodium pustulatum Forst.f. (Polypodiaceae). Kew Bulletin 47: 121–127.
Link, J.H.F. 1841: Filicum species in horto regio botanico Berolinensi cultae. Veit, Berlin.
Melvaine, A.T. 1936: Checklist of New South Wales pteridophytes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 61: 111–121.
Moore, T. 1857: Index Filicum: a synopsis, with characters, of the genera... . Pamplin, London.
Mueller, F. 1864: The Vegetation of the Chatham-Islands. Government Printer, Melbourne.
Pichi Sermolli, R.E.G. 1951: Notes on some Australian ferns. Webbia 8: 201–223.
Pichi Sermolli, R.E.G. 1973: Fragmenta Pteridologiae IV. Webbia 28: 445–477.
Presl, C.B. 1836: Tentamen Pteridographiae. Haase, Pragae.
Richard, A. 1832: Essai d'une Flore de la Nouvelle Zélande. Dumont d'Urville, J. Voyage de découvertes de l'Astrolabe, Division 2, Botanique. Tastu, Paris.
Smith, J. 1846: An enumeration of ferns cultivated in the Royal Gardens at Kew, in December 1845: with characters and observations on some of the genera and species. Companion to the Botanical Magazine New Series 2: 7–39.
Tindale, M.D. 1961: Polypodiaceae. Contributions from the New South Wales Herbarium, Flora Series 210: 24–46.
Willdenow, C.L. von 1810: Species Plantarum. Vol. 5 (1). G.C. Nauk, Berlin.
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