Habitat: coast, lake margin, lowland, margin, moist, open, pasture, sand, shaded, sheltered, silt, stone

Dispersal: Seed

  • a medium-sized to large tree with alternately arranged simple leaves.
  • its leaves are simple, with raised veins on the underside, and toothed margins.
  • separate male and female flowers borne on the same plant.
  • these inconspicuous flowers are borne in branched or un-branched clusters at the tips of the stems.
  • its fruiting catkin is cone-like (1-2 cm long) and long persistent on the tree.
Biosecurity New Zealand 2012: Regional Pest Management Strategies Database. http://www.biosecurityperformance.maf.govt.nz/
Howell, C. 2008: Consolidated list of environmental weeds in New Zealand. DOC Research & Development Series 292: 42.