Subordinate Taxa
Scientific Name:
Loxogramme (Blume) C.Presl, Tent. Pterid. 214 (1836)
  • = Anarthropteris Copel., Gen. Fil. 217 (1947)
Type Taxon:
Loxogramme lanceolata (Sw.) C.Presl
From the Greek loxos (oblique), and gramme (a line), a reference to the sori, which are mostly elongate and oblique to the costa.

Epiphytic or rupestral ferns. Rhizomes erect (NZ) to long-creeping (not NZ), scaly.  Rhizome scales clathrate, squarrose. Fronds monomorphic (NZ) to dimorphic (not NZ), articulation evident or not, undivided, herbaceous to coriaceous, virtually glabrous. Veins reticulate; areoles with (not NZ) or without (NZ) free included veinlets; hydathodes absent. Sori mostly elongate, or rarely round, sometimes partly impressed into the lamina and bulging on upper surface, arranged in one row either side of midrib (NZ) or often confluent with age (not NZ), often confined to upper part of frond; paraphyses present as narrow scales (NZ) or absent (not NZ); exindusiate.  Spores monolete, bilaterally symmetrical, granulate.


A genus of about 34 species (Hennipman et al. 1990).

The monotypic genus Anarthropteris was created by Copeland (1947) with the New Zealand species, A. lanceolata, as the sole representative. Thus construed, Anarthropteris was one of only three fern genera (all monotypic) endemic to New Zealand (Brownsey et al. 1985; Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 2000). Copeland considered it closely related to Loxogramme, but distinguished by its more or less round sori, distinctive receptacular scales, and spore morphology. However, all these characters are highly variable within Loxogramme. Kreier & Schneider (2006) have since shown, based on DNA sequences from four chloroplast genome regions, that Anarthropteris is nested within Loxogramme, and better treated in the latter genus. When treated in Loxogramme, the correct name for the New Zealand species is L. dictyopteris (Mett.) Copel. (Kreier & Schneider 2006), which is adopted here.

Loxogramme scolopendrioides (Gaud.) C.V.Morton was erroneously recorded for New Zealand by earlier authors but is now excluded (Morton 1973).


Mostly tropical but a few species extending into south temperate regions; one in Central America, four in Africa, two in the Pacific, and the majority in Malesia. One species endemic to New Zealand.

Indigenous (Non-endemic)
Number of species in New Zealand within Loxogramme (Blume) C.Presl
Indigenous (Endemic)1

n = 35, 36, 37 (Hennipman et al. 1990).

Brownsey, P.B.; Parris, B.S.; Perrie, L.R. 2021: Polypodiaceae. In: Breitwieser, I. (ed.) Flora of New Zealand — Ferns and Lycophytes. Fascicle 1. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
Brownsey, P.J.; Given, D.R.; Lovis, J.D. 1985: A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 23(3): 431–489. [as Anarthropteris Copel.]
Brownsey, P.J.; Perrie, L.R. 2015: Polypodiaceae (excluding Notogrammitis). In: Breitwieser, I; Heenan, P.B.; Wilton, A.D. (ed.) Flora of New Zealand — Ferns and Lycophytes. Fascicle 1. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
Brownsey, P.J.; Smith-Dodsworth, J.C. 2000: New Zealand ferns and allied plants. Edition 2. David Bateman, Auckland.
Copeland, E.B. 1947: Genera Filicum. Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham, Mass.
Hennipman, E.; Veldhoen, P.; Kramer, K.U. 1990: Polypodiaceae. In: Kramer, K.U.; Green, P.S. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Vol. 1. In: Kubitzki, K. (ed.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Kreier, H.-P.; Schneider, H. 2006: Reinstatement of Loxogramme dictyopteris, based on phylogenetic evidence, for the New Zealand endemic fern, Anarthropteris lanceolata (Polypodiaceae, Polypodiidae). Australian Systematic Botany 19: 309–314.
Large, M.F.; Braggins, J.E. 1991: Spore atlas of New Zealand ferns and fern allies. SIR Publishing, Wellington.
Morton, C.V. 1973: Studies of fern types, II. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 38: 215–281.
Presl, C.B. 1836: Tentamen Pteridographiae. Haase, Prague.
Smith, A.R.; Pryer, K.M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Korall, P.; Schneider, H.; Wolf, P.G. 2006: A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55(3): 705–731. [as Anarthropteris Copel.]