Subordinate Taxa
Scientific Name:
Pinaceae Spreng. ex Rudolphi

Resinous trees or, less commonly, shrubs, usually evergreen, usually monoecious, with long and short growth shoots or long shoots only. Winter buds scaly, often resinous; scales at base persistent. Lvs alternate to spirally arranged, often fascicled, needle-like to linear, sometimes reduced to scale lvs on long shoots. Fls forming cones with spirally arranged scales. ♂ strobili (cones) with numerous scales and stamens (microsporophylls); stamens each with 2 pollen sacs (anthers) on the lower surface of each scale; pollen mostly with bladders. ♀ strobili (cones): bract scales each bearing a flat ovuliferous scale (megasporophyll) on its upper surface and united to its base. Ovules 2, anatropous, situated on the upper (inner) side of the ovuliferous scale. Fr. a semi to strongly woody cone, closed until maturity; bract scales free or united to and enclosed by or exserted from ovuliferous scales, sometimes 0 in ripe cone. Seed usually winged; cotyledons 3–18, often green.

[From: Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

Number of species in New Zealand within Pinaceae Spreng. ex Rudolphi
Exotic: Fully Naturalised20
Exotic: Casual11
Connor, H.E. 1977: The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. Edition 2. Government Printer, Wellington.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.