Classification
 Subordinate Taxa
 Nomenclature
Scientific Name:
Pinaceae Spreng. ex Rudolphi
 Description

Resinous trees or, less commonly, shrubs, usually evergreen, usually monoecious, with long and short growth shoots or long shoots only.  Winter buds scaly, often resinous;  scales at base persistent.  Lvs alternate to spirally arranged, often fascicled, needle-like to linear, sometimes reduced to scale lvs on long shoots.  Fls forming cones with spirally arranged scales.  ♂ strobili (cones) with numerous scales and stamens (microsporophylls);  stamens each with 2 pollen sacs (anthers) on the lower surface of each scale;  pollen mostly with bladders.  ♀ strobili (cones):  bract scales each bearing a flat ovuliferous scale (megasporophyll) on its upper surface and united to its base.  Ovules 2, anatropous, situated on the upper (inner) side of the ovuliferous scale.  Fr. a semi to strongly woody cone, closed until maturity; bract scales free or united to and enclosed by or exserted from ovuliferous scales, sometimes 0 in ripe cone.  Seed usually winged;  cotyledons 3–18, often green.

[From:  Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

 Biostatus
Number of species in New Zealand within Pinaceae Spreng. ex Rudolphi
CategoryNumber
Exotic: Fully Naturalised20
Exotic: Casual10
Exotic: Cultivated1
Total31
 Bibliography
Connor, H.E. 1977: The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. Edition 2. Government Printer, Wellington.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.