Scientific Name:
  • = Theligonaceae

Trees, shrubs, climbers, less commonly herbs.  Lvs simple, opposite, usually entire;  stipules between petioles or between the petiole and axis, sometimes fused and sheathing, sometimes leaflike and forming a pseudo-whorl with the true lvs.  Fls usually in bracteate cymes forming compound fascicles or panicles, sometimes solitary, ± actinomorphic, usually ☿, sometimes unisexual (plants dioecious), often heterostylous.  Calyx tube adnate to ovary; lobes 4–5–(6), often appearing as distinct sepals, sometimes 0.  Corolla  ± tubular;  lobes 4–5–(10), contorted, imbricate or valvate in bud.  Stamens as many as corolla lobes, alternate with them, epipetalous.  Ovary inferior, (1)–2-many-celled with axile, basal or apical placentation.  Ovules 1-many in each cell;  style simple;  stigma capitate or lobed.  Fr. usually a capsule, berry, or drupe, sometimes a schizocarp.  Seed occasionally winged;  endosperm copious.

[From:  Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

Number of species in New Zealand within Rubiaceae
Indigenous (Endemic)61
Indigenous (Non-endemic)5
Exotic: Fully Naturalised10
Exotic: Casual5
Cronquist, A. 1988: The evolution and classification of flowering plants. The New York Botanic Gardens, New York.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.