Classification
 Subordinate Taxa
 Nomenclature
Scientific Name:
Verbenaceae
 Description

Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes lianes, sometimes thorny.  Stems generally quadrangular.  Lvs usually opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, exstipulate, usually simple, less commonly compound.  Infl. racemose and often forming a head, or cymose and then usually dichotomous.  Fls ± zygomorphic, usually 5-merous. Calyx (4)–5–(8)-lobed.  Corolla 5-lobed, rotate and usually with narrow tube, occasionally campanulate, 2-lipped to nearly regular;  lobes imbricate.  Stamens usually 4, rarely 5 or 2, didynamous, epipetalous.  Ovary superior, usually with 2 but occasionally 4–5 carpels, often divided by a false septum down each carpel.  Ovules 2 to each true carpel.  Style terminal;  stigma usually lobed. Fr. generally a drupe, less commonly a capsule, rarely a schizocarp and each fr. usually dividing into 2 or 4 nutlets.  Seed non-endospermic.

[From:  Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

 Biostatus
Exotic
Number of species and named hybrids in New Zealand within Verbenaceae
CategoryNumber
Exotic: Fully Naturalised9
Exotic: Casual4
Total13
 Bibliography
Connor, H.E. 1977: The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. Edition 2. Government Printer, Wellington.
Connor, H.E.; Fountain, J. 2009: Plants that Poison: A New Zealand Guide. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
Cronquist, A. 1988: The evolution and classification of flowering plants. The New York Botanic Gardens, New York.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.