Subordinate Taxa
Scientific Name:

Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes lianes, sometimes thorny.  Stems generally quadrangular.  Lvs usually opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, exstipulate, usually simple, less commonly compound.  Infl. racemose and often forming a head, or cymose and then usually dichotomous.  Fls ± zygomorphic, usually 5-merous. Calyx (4)–5–(8)-lobed.  Corolla 5-lobed, rotate and usually with narrow tube, occasionally campanulate, 2-lipped to nearly regular;  lobes imbricate.  Stamens usually 4, rarely 5 or 2, didynamous, epipetalous.  Ovary superior, usually with 2 but occasionally 4–5 carpels, often divided by a false septum down each carpel.  Ovules 2 to each true carpel.  Style terminal;  stigma usually lobed. Fr. generally a drupe, less commonly a capsule, rarely a schizocarp and each fr. usually dividing into 2 or 4 nutlets.  Seed non-endospermic.

[From:  Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

Number of species and named hybrids in New Zealand within Verbenaceae
Exotic: Fully Naturalised9
Exotic: Casual4
Connor, H.E. 1977: The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. Edition 2. Government Printer, Wellington.
Connor, H.E.; Fountain, J. 2009: Plants that Poison: A New Zealand Guide. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
Cronquist, A. 1988: The evolution and classification of flowering plants. The New York Botanic Gardens, New York.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.