Scientific Name:

Monoecious or dioecious herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes with milky latex. Lvs alternate or opposite, simple or compound, usually stipulate.  Infl. a spike, raceme, panicle, cyme, or cluster, or fls solitary (in  fls reduced and clustered in a cup-shaped involucre to form the flower-like cyathium).  Fls unisexual.  Calyx variously lobed, much reduced or 0;  petals usually 0, sometimes present and rarely united.  ♂ fls often with a rudimentary ovary;  stamens 1–1000;  filaments free or connate;  anthers 2–(4)-locular, erect or inflexed in bud.  ♀ fls without staminodes; ovary usually 3-locular;  styles free or united;  ovules 1–2 per cell, pendulous;  disc often present in both sexes.  Fr. usually a 3-celled capsule (regma), or rarely a drupe.  Seeds often with conspicuous caruncle;  endosperm copious;  embryo straight.

[From:  Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

Number of species in New Zealand within Euphorbiaceae
Indigenous (Endemic)2
Exotic: Fully Naturalised19
Exotic: Casual14
Connor, H.E. 1977: The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. Edition 2. Government Printer, Wellington.
Connor, H.E.; Fountain, J. 2009: Plants that Poison: A New Zealand Guide. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
Cronquist, A. 1988: The evolution and classification of flowering plants. The New York Botanic Gardens, New York.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.