Nomenclature
Scientific Name:
Lecanopteris pustulata (G.Forst.) Perrie & Brownsey in Perrie et al., Blumea 66: 247 (2021)
Synonymy:
  • Polypodium pustulatum G.Forst., Fl. Ins. Austr. 81 (1786)
  • Microsorum pustulatum (G.Forst.) Copel., Gen. Fil. 196 (1947) – as Microsorium
  • Phymatosorus pustulatus (G.Forst.) Large, Braggins & P.S.Green, New Zealand J. Bot. 30: 372 (1992) – as Phymatosorus pustulatum
  • Zealandia pustulata (G.Forst.) Testo & A.R.Field, Syst. Bot. 44: 750 (2019)
Lectotype selected by Pichi Sermolli 1951: New Zealand, G. Forster, BM 000066256!
  • = Polypodium scandens Labill., Nov. Holl. Pl. 2, 91, t.240 (1807) nom. illeg., non Polypodium scandens G.Forst. 1786
  • Polypodium diversifolium Willd., Sp. Pl. 5(1), 166 (1810) nom. nov. pro Polypodium scandens Labill. 1807 (non Polypodium scandens G.Forst. 1786)
  • Microsorum diversifolium (Willd.) Copel., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 16: 114 (1929) – as Microsorium diversifolium
  • Pleopeltis diversifolia (Willd.) Melvaine, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales 61: 120 (1936)
  • Phymatodes diversifolium (Willd.) Pic.Serm., Webbia 8: 222 (1951) nom. illeg.
  • Phymatosorus diversifolius (Willd.) Pic.Serm., Webbia 28: 459 (1973)
Lectotype (selected by Pichi Sermolli 1951 as first step lectotypification; second step lectotype selected by Brownsey & Perrie 2012): Nova Hollandia [Tasmania], J.J.H. de Labillardière, FI 004209 (!online)
  • = Polypodium billardierei R.Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland. 147 (1810) – as billardieri
  • Phymatodes billardierei (R.Br.) C.Presl, Tent. Pterid. 196 (1836) nom. illeg.
  • Chrysopteris billardierei (R.Br.) Link, Fil. Spec. 123 (1841)
  • Drynaria billardierei (R.Br.) J.Sm., Companion Bot. Mag. New Ser. 2: 14 (1846)
  • Pleopeltis billardierei (R.Br.) T.Moore, Index Fil. Ixxviii (1857)
  • Polypodium scandens var. billardierei (R.Br.) F.Muell., Veg. Chatham Isl. 69 (1864)
Lectotype (selected by Tindale 1961): Port Dalrymple, [Tasmania], R. Brown Iter Austral. 11, Jan. 1804, BM 001038373!
Etymology:
From the Latin pustulatus (having pustules), a reference to the impressed sori forming bulges on the adaxial lamina surface.
Vernacular Name(s):
hound's tongue; kōwaowao; pāraharaha
 Description

Epiphytic and terrestrial; creeping or climbing ferns. Rhizomes long-creeping, 3–11 mm diameter, scaly. Rhizome scales clathrate, ovate, 3–7 mm long, 1–2 mm wide, mostly appressed but with the tips sometimes squarrose, blackish-brown, entire. Roots of one type, lacking laterally inserted and clasping roots. Fronds 45–750 mm long. Stipes 10–350 mm long, pale to chocolate brown, glabrous or with very scattered scales. Laminae very varied, from undivided or variously lobed to deeply 1-pinnatifid; undivided laminae (fertile) narrowly elliptic, 35–220 mm long, 6–30 mm wide, or (sterile) longer and broader, up to 260 mm long and 70 mm wide; lobed or pinnatifid laminae (fertile) ovate to elliptic or broadly ovate to broadly elliptic, 50–425 mm long, 35–350 mm wide, or (sterile) up to 420 mm long and 300 mm wide; lamina extending 5–40 mm below the lowest lobe, bright glossy green, coriaceous, glabrous or with scattered scales on the costae, especially on young fronds. Lamina lobes (fertile) in 1–15 pairs, 25–185 mm long, 4–30 mm wide, or (sterile) less numerous and wider, in up to 10 pairs and up to 60 mm wide; straight, acute to acuminate, margins entire or wavy, widest about the middle. Veins reticulate, forming 2–3 series of areoles between costa and margin; hydathodes conspicuous on adaxial surface of lamina. Sori round or rarely elliptic, 2.5–5 mm wide, impressed into lamina forming low bulges on adaxial surface, in 1 row either side of costa, medial or closer to the margin; paraphyses absent; exindusiate.

 Recognition

This is the commonest and most variable of the three species of Lecanopteris in New Zealand. It can be distinguished by its thick rhizomes (>4 mm diameter) with appressed blackish-brown scales, its very variable fronds (Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 2000, fig. 63), coriaceous and bright glossy green laminae, conspicuous veins and hydathodes on the upper lamina surface, and broad lamina lobes.

Occasional aberrant forms are found, either crested at the apices or with 2-pinnatifid laminae.

Only one subspecies is present in New Zealand. Lecanopteris pustulata subsp. howensis (Tindale et P.S.Green) Perrie & Brownsey is recognised as endemic to Lord Howe Island (Bostock & Spokes 1998– as Microsorum). It is distinguished by having rhizome scales that are abruptly acuminate and 1.5–3.3 mm wide, laminae that are usually divided to the rachis into adnate pinnae, and sori which are deeply sunken into the lamina and usually either submarginal or about one-third of the way to the costa.

 Distribution

North Island: Northland, Auckland, Volcanic Plateau, Gisborne, Taranaki, Southern North Island. 

South Island: Western Nelson, Sounds-Nelson, Marlborough, Westland, Canterbury, Otago, Southland, Fiordland.

Kermadec Islands, Three Kings Islands, Chatham Islands, Solander Island, Stewart Island, Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands.

Altitudinal range: 0–1050 m.

Lecanopteris pustulata is abundant throughout the North Island from near sea level, growing to over 1050 m on Mt Hauhungatahi near Erua, and in the north-west Ruahine Range. It is common in coastal and lowland regions of the South Island, extending locally to over 900 m at Jordan Stream Reserve, Marlborough, near Mt Cook, and in the Edith Valley, Fiordland, but it is largely absent from inland high country regions and much of Otago.

Also Australia (Queensland, NSW, ACT, Victoria, Tasmania), Norfolk Island.

 Habitat

Lecanopteris pustulata is found creeping, and often covering extensive areas, on the ground, growing over rocks or fallen logs, on cliffs and banks, or epiphytic on native and naturalised trees. It occurs in coastal to montane forest, pine forest, scrub, scoria and open areas, usually in slightly drier habitats, extending into subalpine scrub in the southern South Island.

 Biostatus
Indigenous (Non-endemic)
Number of subspecific taxa in New Zealand within Lecanopteris pustulata (G.Forst.) Perrie & Brownsey
CategoryNumber
Indigenous (Non-endemic)1
Total1
 Cytology

n = 37 (Brownlie 1954, as Microsorium diversifolium).

 Notes

This species has been widely known as Phymatosorus diversifolius (e.g. Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989), Microsorum diversifolium (e.g. Crookes 1963) or Phymatodes diversifolium (e.g. Allan 1961), with these combinations being based on Polypodium diversifolium Willd. collected in Tasmania by Labillardière. An earlier basionym, Polypodium pustulatum G.Forst., was for many years considered a “species dubia” because of the inadequate type specimen lacking a rhizome, which could not be distinguished as either diversifolium or novae-zealandiae (Pichi Sermolli 1951). However, on the basis of spore morphology, Large et al. (1992b) showed conclusively that the specimen is the same as the former, and that Forster’s name, P. pustulatum, should take priority. The species was initially treated as Microsorum pustulatum by Large et al. (1992b), then as Phymatosorus pustulatus (Large et al. 1992a), and more recently as Zealandia pustulata (Testo et al. 2019).

Robert Brown’s Polypodium billardierei, and names based on his type from Port Dalrymple, are later synonyms. The name Polypodium phymatodes L. used by Richard (1832) is a misidentification.​​​​​

 Bibliography
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Brown, R. 1810: Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van-Diemen. Johnson, London.
Brownlie, G. 1954: Introductory note to cyto-taxonomic studies of New Zealand ferns. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 82: 665–666. [as Microsorum diversifolium (Willd.) Copel.]
Brownlie, G. 1958: Chromosome numbers in New Zealand ferns. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 85: 213–216. [as Microsorum pustulatum (G.Forst.) Copel.; Microsorum pustulatum sensu Brownlie]
Brownsey, P.B.; Parris, B.S.; Perrie, L.R. 2021: Polypodiaceae. In: Breitwieser, I. (ed.) Flora of New Zealand — Ferns and Lycophytes. Fascicle 1. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
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