Nomenclature
Scientific Name:
Phormium tenax J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. Pl., ed. 2. t. 24 (1776)
Vernacular Name(s):
Flax; Harakeke; Harareke; Kōrari; Lowland flax; New Zealand flax; Swamp flax
 Description

Lvs 1–3 m. × 5–12 cm., stiff and ± erect, at least in lower part; butt heavy and us. brightly coloured. Infl. to 5–(6) m. tall; peduncle c. 2–3 cm. diam., us. erect, dark, terete, glab. Fls 2.5–5 cm. long, predominantly dull red; tips of inner tepals only slightly recurved. Ovary erect; carpels straight. Capsule us. < 10 cm. long, often much less, erect, trigonous, abruptly contracted to tip, not twisted, remaining firm and dark in age. Seeds c. 9–10 × 4–5 mm., ± elliptic, plate-like but ± twisted. 2n = 32.

[From:  Moore and Edgar (1970) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 2.]

 Biostatus
Indigenous (Endemic)
 Phenology

Flowering: Nov.–Dec.; Fruiting: Jan.–Mar.

 Bibliography
Coyne, P. 2009: Phormium tenax (New Zealand Flax) — Norfolk Island native? Cunninghamia: 167–170.
de Lange, P.J.; Rolfe, J.R.; Barkla J.W.; Courtney, S.P.; Champion, P.D.; Perrie, L.R.; Beadel, S.N.; Ford, K.A.; Breitwieser, I.; Schönberger, I.; Hindmarsh-Walls, R.; Heenan, P.B.; Ladley, K. 2018: Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2017. New Zealand Threat Classification Series. No. 22. [Not Threatened]
de Lange, P.J.; Rolfe, J.R.; Champion, P.D.; Courtney, S.P.; Heenan, P.B.; Barkla, J.W.; Cameron, E.K.; Norton, D.A.; Hitchmough, R.A. 2013: Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 3. Department of Conservation, Wellington. [Not Threatened]
Forster, J.R.; Forster, G. 1776: Characteres Generum Plantarum quas in Itinere ad Insulas Maris Australis Collegerunt, Descripserunt, Delinearunt, Annis. Edition 2. White, Cadell & Elmsley, London.
Macphail, M.K.; Hope, G.S.; Anderson, A. 2001: Polynesian plant introductions in the Southwest Pacific: Initial pollen evidence from Norfolk Island. Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement 27: 123–134.