Scientific Name:
Scrophulariaceae Juss.
  • = Buddlejaceae
  • = Myoporaceae

Annual or perennial herbs (rarely climbing), shrubs, or rarely trees, sometimes root semi-parasites.  Lvs usually simple, sometimes deeply lobed, opposite, alternate, whorled, or opposite below and alternate above, occasionally all radical, exstipulate.  Fls usually in bracteate racemes or spikes, or solitary and axillary, weakly to strongly zygomorphic.  Calyx (3)–4–5-lobed, sometimes almost to base, sometimes 2-lipped.  Corolla 4–5–(8)-lobed, often 2-lipped, sometimes saccate or with a spur near base, sometimes with a pouch (palate) at the base of the limb, occasionally with 2 pouches.  Stamens 2, 4, 5 or rarely 6–8, usually didynamous; staminodes sometimes present.  Anthers usually 2-celled.  Ovary superior, (1)–2–(3)-locular;  stigma entire or 2-lobed.  Fr. usually a variously compressed loculicidal or septicidal capsule, rarely a berry or a schizocarp;  seeds numerous, endospermic.

[From:  Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

Number of species in New Zealand within Scrophulariaceae Juss.
Indigenous (Endemic)3
Indigenous (Non-endemic)2
Exotic: Fully Naturalised15
Exotic: Casual10
Connor, H.E. 1977: The Poisonous Plants in New Zealand. Edition 2. Government Printer, Wellington.
Connor, H.E.; Fountain, J. 2009: Plants that Poison: A New Zealand Guide. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
Cronquist, A. 1988: The evolution and classification of flowering plants. The New York Botanic Gardens, New York.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.