Subordinate Taxa
Scientific Name:

Herbs, shrubs or trees.  Lvs usually alternate, simple, stipulate.  Fls solitary, axillary or in racemes or fascicles, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, hypogynous, ☿ or unisexual.  Sepals 5, free, sometimes with basal appendages.  Petals 5, free, equal or unequal, the lowest sometimes spurred. Stamens 5, united at base into a ring;  anthers introrse;  connective often projecting as an appendage.  Ovary of 3–(5) fused carpels, 1-celled; placentation parietal.  Style and stigma simple or lobed.  Fr. a capsule dehiscing by 3–(5) valves, or an indehiscent berry.  Seeds usually smooth; embryo straight;  endosperm fleshy.

[From:  Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

Number of species in New Zealand within Violaceae
Indigenous (Endemic)14
Indigenous (Non-endemic)3
Exotic: Fully Naturalised4
Exotic: Casual3
Cronquist, A. 1988: The evolution and classification of flowering plants. The New York Botanic Gardens, New York.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.