Scientific Name:
Cynosurus echinatus L. (1753)
Vernacular Name(s):
rough dogstail; Rough dog's-tail

Annuals, in tufts, or shoots solitary, 7–70–(110) cm. Leaf-sheath sub-membranous, smooth, or very minutely scabrid on ribs; upper sheaths ± inflated. Ligule (0.7)–2–6.5 mm, glabrous, rounded. Leaf-blade (2)–4–26 cm × 2–8 mm, abaxially mainly smooth, but finely scabrid on ribs above, adaxially finely scabrid on ribs, margins finely scabrid, tip finely tapered, acicular, scabrid. Culm 6–65–(100) cm, erect or geniculate at base, internodes glabrous. Panicle (1)–1.5–7.5 × (0.6)–1–4.5 cm, secund, spike-like, ovate to oblong or almost globose, bristly, shining; rachis and very short branches minutely scabrid-papillose on angles. ☿ and Ø spikelets mixed together in dense clusters, green to purplish; occasionally pro-liferous: Ø spikelets 6–11 mm, persistent, obovate, of 9–14 narrow-lanceolate, finely scabrid, rigid, finely awn-tipped bracts, 6–8.5 mm, spreading at maturity; ☿ spikelets 10–20 mm, 1–3-flowered, elliptic. Glumes persistent, ± equal and equalling spikelet, 1-nerved, hyaline, shining, narrow-lanceolate, midnerve and margins minutely scabrid, apex fine, acicular. Lemma 4–6.5 mm, faintly 5-nerved below, more obviously nerved above, submembranous, smooth in lower ½, scabrid above and on narrow hyaline margins; awn (5)–7–14.5 mm, strong, straight, scabrid. Palea ≈ lemma, scabrid near apex. Anthers 1.6–2.6 mm. Caryopsis 3–3.8 × 0.8–1.3 mm.

[From: Edgar and Connor (2000) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 5 (second printing).]