Scientific Name:
Ilex aquifolium L., Sp. Pl. 125 (1753) – as Aquifolium
Vernacular Name(s):
Common holly; English holly; Holly

Evergreen, dioecious, much-branched shrub or small tree up to c. 12 m high. Shoots puberulent when young, becoming glabrous, slightly ridged. Lvs usually puberulent when very young, becoming glabrous, alternate, elliptic, oblong or elliptic-ovate, dark glossy green above, paler below, (3)–5–8–(10) cm long; lf margin somewhat thickened, undulate, usually deeply serrate-spinose, the upper lvs in particular sometimes flat and entire with mucronate apex, but some lvs, especially those of juvenile and vegetative shoots, always spinous; petiole grooved, (3)–5–10–(15) mm long. Fls few to numerous in fascicles or small cymes; calyx teeth 4, broadly triangular, < tube, ciliolate; petals 4, white, 3–5 mm long; staminodes of ♀ fls large; vestigial ovary of ♂ fls much reduced. Fr. globose, bright red, 6–10 mm diam.

[From: Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]


Flowering: Oct.–Nov.

Biosecurity New Zealand 2012: Regional Pest Management Strategies Database.
Edwards, R. 2008: Lincoln University campus – a guide to some of the trees currently growing there. Lincoln University, Lincoln.
Howell, C. 2008: Consolidated list of environmental weeds in New Zealand. DOC Research & Development Series 292: 42.
Linnaeus, C. 1753: Species Plantarum. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.