Scientific Name:
Pseudopanax crassifolius (Sol. ex A.Cunn.) K.Koch, Wochenschr. Gärtnerei Pflanzenk. 2: 366 (1859) – as crassifolium
  • Aralia crassifolia Sol. ex A.Cunn., Ann. Nat. Hist. 2: 214 (1839)
  • Panax crassifolius (Sol. ex A.Cunn.) Decne. & Planch., Ser. IV. iii: 105 (1854) – as crassifolium
  • = Pseudopanax crassifolius var. trifoliolatum Kirk
  • = Hedera crassifolia A.Gray, U.S. Explor. Exped., Phan. 719 (1854)
  • = Panax coriaceus Regel, Gartenflora 45 (1859) – as coriaceum
  • = Panax longissimus Hook.f., Handb. New Zealand Fl. 102 (1864) – as longissimum
Vernacular Name(s):
Hoheka; Horoeka; Koeka; Kokoeka; Lancewood; Ohoeka

Tree up to 15 m. tall, trunk up to c. 5 dm. diam., lvs very thick and rigid. Seedlings with submembr. ovate to lanceolate deeply toothed lvs, deeply lobed near base, passing rapidly into narrow-linear lvs. Unbranched juveniles with narrow-linear deflexed lvs up to 1 m. or more long, distantly sharply toothed, with stout midrib. At branching stage the lvs become shorter, c. 30–15 cm. long, and may be unifoliolate (var. unifoliolatum Kirk For. Fl. 1889, 61) or 3–5-foliolate (var. trifoliolatum Kirk loc. cit.) or mixed. Flowering is exceedingly rare in the unbranched, rare in the branched juvenile stage. Adult trees round-headed, with lvs c. 10–20 × 2–3 cm., narrow elliptic-cuneate to lanceolate or linear-obovate, acute or obtuse, entire to sinuate or coarsely serrate. Umbels terminal, irregularly compound; primary rays c. 5–10, c. 6 cm. long; umbellules sts racemosely arranged. Ovary 5-loculed, 5-ovuled, style-branches 5, connate, sts free at tips. Fr. subglobose, c. 4–5 mm. diam.

[From: Allan (1961) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 1.]

Indigenous (Endemic)

Fruiting: Jan.–Apr.

Cunningham, A. 1839: Florae insularum Novae Zelandiae precursor; or a specimen of the botany of the islands of New Zealand. Annals of Natural History 2: 125–132.
de Lange, P.J.; Rolfe, J.R.; Barkla J.W.; Courtney, S.P.; Champion, P.D.; Perrie, L.R.; Beadel, S.N.; Ford, K.A.; Breitwieser, I.; Schönberger, I.; Hindmarsh-Walls, R.; Heenan, P.B.; Ladley, K. 2018: Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2017. New Zealand Threat Classification Series. No. 22. [Not Threatened]
de Lange, P.J.; Rolfe, J.R.; Champion, P.D.; Courtney, S.P.; Heenan, P.B.; Barkla, J.W.; Cameron, E.K.; Norton, D.A.; Hitchmough, R.A. 2013: Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 3. Department of Conservation, Wellington. [Not Threatened]
Decaisne, J.; Planchon, J.-E. 1854: Esquisse d'une mongraphie des Araliacées. Rev. Hortic., Paris Ser. IV. iii: 104–109.
Edgar, E. 1973: Names in Pseudopanax C. Kock (Araliaceae). New Zealand Journal of Botany 11: 171–172.
Gray, A. 1854: United States Exploring Expedition. During the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. vol. XV. Botany. Phanerogamia by Asa Gray with a Folia Atlas of 100 Plates. Part 1. Philadelphia.
Hooker, J.D. 1864: Handbook of the New Zealand Flora: a systematic description of the native plants of New Zealand and the Chatham, Kermadec's, Lord Auckland's, Campbell's and Macquarie's Islands. Part I. Reeve, London.
Koch, C. In: Koch, C.; Fintelmann, G. A. 1859: Wochenschrift für Gärtnerei und Pflanzenkunde 2
Regal von, E. A. 1859: Gartenflora. Monatschrift für deutsche und schweizerische Garten- und Blumenkunde