Subordinate Taxa
Scientific Name:

Herbs, shrubs or trees. Lvs usually alternate, simple, stipulate. Fls solitary, axillary or in racemes or fascicles, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, hypogynous, ☿ or unisexual. Sepals 5, free, sometimes with basal appendages. Petals 5, free, equal or unequal, the lowest sometimes spurred. Stamens 5, united at base into a ring; anthers introrse; connective often projecting as an appendage. Ovary of 3–(5) fused carpels, 1-celled; placentation parietal. Style and stigma simple or lobed. Fr. a capsule dehiscing by 3–(5) valves, or an indehiscent berry. Seeds usually smooth; embryo straight; endosperm fleshy.

[From: Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

Number of species in New Zealand within Violaceae
Indigenous (Endemic)14
Indigenous (Non-endemic)3
Exotic: Fully Naturalised4
Exotic: Casual4
Cronquist, A. 1988: The evolution and classification of flowering plants. The New York Botanic Gardens, New York.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.