Subordinate Taxa
Scientific Name:
Deciduous, monoecious trees or shrubs with scaly buds. Lvs alternate, simple; stipules usually caducous. Fls wind-pollinated, the sexes in different infls, often produced before the lvs; ♂ fls in pendulous catkins; fls 2–3 in axil of each bract; each group of fls with 2–4 bracteoles; perianth minute, 4-lobed; stamens 2 or 4. ♀ fls in erect catkins; bracts and bracteoles as in male fls; fls 2–3 in axil of each bract; perianth 0. Ovary superior, 2-celled. Styles 2, free. Ovules 1 per cell, pendulous. Fr. a compressed nutlet, usually winged, 1–3 in the axis of scales formed from the fusion of bracts and bracteoles, the whole forming a cylindric, ellipsoid or ovoid cone-like structure. Seed non-endospermic, with straight embryo.
[From: Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]
Number of species in New Zealand within Betulaceae
Exotic: Fully Naturalised4
Exotic: Casual2
Cronquist, A. 1988: The evolution and classification of flowering plants. The New York Botanic Gardens, New York.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.