Nomenclature
Scientific Name:
Notogrammitis rigida (Hombr.) Parris in Perrie & Parris, New Zealand J. Bot. 50: 469 (2012)
Synonymy:
  • Grammitis rigida Hombr. in Hombron & Jacquinot, Voy. Pôle Sud, Bot. t. 2f (1843)
  • Polypodium australe var. rigidum (Hombr.) Cockayne, Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 36: 325 (1904) – as P. australe rigida
  • Polypodium billardierei var. rigidum (Hombr.) Cockayne, Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 40: 305 (1908)
Lectotype (selected by Brownsey et al. 2021): Nouvelle Zélande [New Zealand], Iles Auckland [Auckland Islands], Hombron s.n., 1841, Voyage de l’Astrolabe et de la Zélée 1838–40, P 00632721!
  • = Grammitis crassa Fée, Mém. Foug., 5. Gen. Filic. 234 (1852)
Lectotype (selected by Parris & Given 1976): Lord Auckland [Islands], unknown collector, P (n.v.); isolectotype: Herb. Webbianum, FI 004210 (!online)
Etymology:
From the Latin rigidus (stiff), a reference to the nature of the frond in this species.
 Description

Rhizomes erect to short-creeping, bearing scales. Rhizome scales narrowly ovate, 8–15 mm long, 1.0–2.4 mm wide, pale brown to red-brown, concolorous, non-clathrate. Stipes indistinct, winged almost to base, glabrous. Fronds undivided, narrowly elliptic to narrowly obovate, 75–220 mm long, 9–20 mm wide; apices acute; margins entire or with occasional projections; bases attenuate to an indistinct winged stipe; dark green adaxially, paler green abaxially; coriaceous; glabrous or bearing sparse brown hairs up to 1.2 mm on the abaxial surface of the midrib and lamina. Hairs simple catenate, or branched with catenate branches. Hydathodes absent. Sori elliptic, elongated along veins, oblique, 2–10 mm long, in 12–30 pairs in mid to upper part of lamina, lacking hairs. Sporangia 240–400 µm long; spores 30–57 µm diameter.

 Recognition

Notogrammitis rigida is characterised by its erect to short-creeping rhizome, lack of distinct stipes, and more or less glabrous fronds, up to 220 mm long and 20 mm wide with occasional marginal projections. It is easily the largest undivided species of the genus in New Zealand and is confined to high rainfall, coastal areas in the far south of the country. It lacks setae and hairs with setiform branches.

 Distribution

South Island: Southland, Fiordland.

Solander Island, Stewart Island, Auckland Islands.

Altitudinal range: 0–300 m.

Notogrammitis rigida is a rare fern found only in coastal habitats close to the sea in Southland and Fiordland, and on Solander Island, Stewart Island / Rakiura and the Auckland Islands. It reaches 300 m on Solander Island.

 Habitat

Notogrammitis rigida is found in beech, Olearia colensoi and Metrosideros umbellata forest, or under mānuka. It grows amongst mosses on wet coastal rocks, cliffs and slips, often very close to the sea. It is also epiphytic on Metrosideros umbellata or, more rarely, found in the spray zone of waterfalls.

 Biostatus
Indigenous (Endemic)

Notogrammitis rigida was given a conservation status of Naturally Uncommon by de Lange et al. (2018).

 Bibliography
Brownsey, P.B.; Parris, B.S.; Perrie, L.R. 2021: Polypodiaceae. In: Breitwieser, I. (ed.) Flora of New Zealand — Ferns and Lycophytes. Fascicle 1. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
Brownsey, P.J.; Given, D.R.; Lovis, J.D. 1985: A revised classification of New Zealand pteridophytes with a synonymic checklist of species. New Zealand Journal of Botany 23(3): 431–489. [as Grammitis crassa Fée; Grammitis rigida Hombr.; Polypodium australe var. rigidum (Hombr.) Cockayne; Polypodium billardierei var. rigidum (Hombr.) Cockayne]
Brownsey, P.J.; Parris, B.S.; Perrie, L.R. 2021: Taxonomic notes on the New Zealand flora: lectotypes in Polypodiaceae and Blechnaceae. New Zealand Journal of Botany 59: 244–249. (Published online 7 Oct. 2020).
Cockayne, L. 1904: A botanical excursion during midwinter to the southern islands of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 36: 225–333.
Cockayne, L. 1908: Some hitherto-unrecorded plant habitats. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 40: 304–315.
de Lange, P.J.; Norton, D.A.; Courtney, S.P.; Heenan, P.B.; Barkla, J.W.; Cameron, E.K.; Hitchmough, R.; Townsend, A.J. 2009: Threatened and uncommon plants of New Zealand (2008 revision). New Zealand Journal of Botany 47: 61–96. [as Grammitis rigida Hombr.] [Naturally uncommon]
de Lange, P.J.; Norton, D.A.; Heenan, P.B.; Courtney, S.P.; Molloy, B.P.J.; Ogle, C.C.; Rance, B.D. 2004: Threatened and uncommon plants of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 42(1): 45–76. [as Grammitis rigida Hombr.]
de Lange, P.J.; Rolfe, J.R.; Barkla J.W.; Courtney, S.P.; Champion, P.D.; Perrie, L.R.; Beadel, S.N.; Ford, K.A.; Breitwieser, I.; Schönberger, I.; Hindmarsh-Walls, R.; Heenan, P.B.; Ladley, K. 2018: Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2017. New Zealand Threat Classification Series No. 22. [Naturally Uncommon]
de Lange, P.J.; Rolfe, J.R.; Champion, P.D.; Courtney, S.P.; Heenan, P.B.; Barkla, J.W.; Cameron, E.K.; Norton, D.A.; Hitchmough, R.A. 2013: Conservation status of New Zealand indigenous vascular plants, 2012. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 3. Department of Conservation, Wellington. [Naturally Uncommon]
Fée, A.L.A. 1852: Mémoires sur les familles des fougères. 5. Genera Filicum. Baillière, Paris.
Hombron, J.B.; Jacquinot, C. 1843–1853: Botanique, Atlas. Dumont D'Urville, J.S.C. (ed.) Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie, sur les Corvettes l'Astrolabe et la Zélée: exécuté par ordre du roi pendant les années 1837-1838-1839-1840. Gide & Baudry, Paris.
Parris, B.S.; Given, D.R. 1976: A taxonomic revision of the genus Grammitis Sw. (Grammitidaceae : Filicales) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 14: 85–111.
Perrie, L.R.; Parris, B.S. 2012: Chloroplast DNA sequences indicate the grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae) in New Zealand belong to a single clade, Notogrammitis gen. nov. New Zealand Journal of Botany 50(4): 457–472.