Scientific Name:
Notogrammitis Parris in Perrie & Parris, New Zealand J. Bot. 50: 465 (2012)
From the Greek noto (southern) and Grammitis, a reference to the southern distribution of members of this genus that were formerly included in Grammitis.
Vernacular Name(s):
finger ferns; strap ferns

Terrestrial, rupestral or epiphytic ferns. Rhizomes erect, or short- to long-creeping and very thin, not pruinose, scaly. Rhizome scales non-clathrate or rarely partially clathrate, ovate or narrowly ovate, pale to medium brown or rarely bicolorous with dark brown centres. Fronds monomorphic, not or rarely articulated to rhizome. Stipes glabrous or bearing non-glandular hairs or setae. Laminae entire to 2‑pinnatifid, herbaceous or coriaceous, glabrous or bearing non-glandular hairs. Veins free; hydathodes present or absent. Sori round or elongate along veins, superficial or slightly sunken into lamina surface, in one row either side of costa or midrib; paraphyses present or absent; exindusiate. Spores monolete; perispores granulate and papillate, chlorophyllous.


A genus of 12 species (Perrie & Parris 2012).

Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences in grammitid ferns by Ranker et al. (2004) demonstrated a need for considerable realignment of generic boundaries within the grammitid ferns. Several new grammitid genera have since been described (Sundue et al. 2014).

In his monographic study of Grammitis, Copeland (1951) recognised just three species in New Zealand: G. billardierei, G. ciliata and G. crassa. Allan (1961) extended this to five species, with the addition of G. pumila and G. heterophylla, although Tindale (1961) separated the latter into Ctenopteris on the basis of its pinnately divided fronds. Parris & Given (1976) revised Grammitis in New Zealand, recognising a total of nine species and two subspecies in the region, in addition to Ctenopteris heterophylla. Parris (1998) subsequently added the Tasmanian G. gunnii to the New Zealand flora. However, Ranker et al. (2004) demonstrated that Ctenopteris and Grammitis were not monophyletic when defined on the basis of frond dissection. Since then, based on phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences, Perrie & Parris (2012) have shown that all 11 New Zealand grammitids, together with one Tasmanian species, form a single clade, which they recognised as Notogrammitis and which includes all grammitid species occurring below 35º 30’ S worldwide. The recognition of a new genus has had nomenclatural consequences for several traditionally recognised species, detailed in the synonymies and Notes below.

1Fronds 1–2-pinnatifidheterophylla
Fronds entire2
2Hairs present in and around the sori3
Hairs absent from the soral area7
3Rhizomes long-creeping4
Rhizomes erect or short-creeping5
4Laminae 6–160 mm long; stipe and lamina hairs dark red-brown; soral hairs up to 3 mm longpatagonica
Laminae 8–70 mm long; stipe and lamina hairs white to pale brown; soral hairs up to 1.5 mm longgunnii
5Soral hairs dark red-brown, stoutrawlingsii
Soral hairs pale brown or whitish, slender6
6Laminae 1.5–6 (–8) mm wide, 9–80 (–100) mm long; lamina margins entire and flat; hydathodes usually absent, rarely present; plants rupestral or terrestrialciliata
Laminae 3–12 mm wide, 22–165 mm long; lamina margins often scalloped and undulate; hydathodes present; plants epiphyticpseudociliata
7Laminae 9–20 mm wide; rhizome scales >8 mm longrigida
Laminae usually <10 mm wide; rhizome scales <6 mm long8
8Stipes hairy; hairs present as setae*, or hairs branched with setiform branches9
Stipes glabrous, or with simple catenate hairs*10
9Rhizomes short- to long-creeping; stipes clearly defined, not winged; fronds 9–115 mm long; sori in 1–10 pairsgivenii
Rhizomes erect to short-creeping; stipes usually ill-defined, winged; fronds 20–245 mm long; sori in 1–36 pairsbillardierei
10Rhizomes erect to short-creeping; sori usually in >10 pairs; plants usually epiphyticangustifolia
Rhizomes short- to long-creeping; sori in <10 pairs; plants terrestrial or rupestral11
11Fronds 4–42 mm long; sori in 1–5 (–7) pairscrassior
Fronds 9–115 mm long; sori in 1–10 pairsgivenii

*Setae are tapered at the apices and appear unicellular; catenate hairs are clearly multicellular, with adjacent cells collapsed at right angles to each other.


Species of Notogrammitis are mostly small epiphytic or rupestral ferns, with erect to long-creeping rhizomes, usually undivided laminae, free veins, sori round or elongated along veins and lacking indusia. Spores are characteristically chlorophyllous and granulate (Large & Braggins 1991).


Notogrammitis is confined to southern temperate regions, extending southwards from 28º S, and is the only grammitid genus below 35º 30’ S. Its centre of diversity is in Australia and New Zealand, but species are also present in Chile, Argentina, South Africa and many of the islands of the Southern Ocean (Perrie & Parris 2012). Three species in South America, one in South Africa, seven in Australia. Eleven species in New Zealand; four endemic and seven indigenous.

Indigenous (Non-endemic)
Number of species in New Zealand within Notogrammitis Parris
Indigenous (Endemic)4
Indigenous (Non-endemic)7

Notogrammitis has a base chromosome number of x = 37 (Dawson et al. 2000; Tindale & Roy 2002).

Brownsey, P.B.; Parris, B.S.; Perrie, L.R. 2021: Polypodiaceae. In: Breitwieser, I. (ed.) Flora of New Zealand — Ferns and Lycophytes. Fascicle 1. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
Copeland, E.B. 1951: Grammitis. Philippine Journal of Science 80: 93–271.
Dawson, M.I.; Brownsey, P.J.; Lovis, J.D. 2000: Index of chromosome numbers of indigenous New Zealand pteridophytes. New Zealand Journal of Botany 38(1): 25–46.
Large, M.F.; Braggins, J.E. 1991: Spore atlas of New Zealand ferns and fern allies. SIR Publishing, Wellington.
Parris, B.S. 1998: Grammitidaceae. In: Flora of Australia. Vol. 48. 450–468.
Parris, B.S.; Given, D.R. 1976: A taxonomic revision of the genus Grammitis Sw. (Grammitidaceae : Filicales) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 14: 85–111.
Perrie, L.R.; Parris, B.S. 2012: Chloroplast DNA sequences indicate the grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae) in New Zealand belong to a single clade, Notogrammitis gen. nov. New Zealand Journal of Botany 50(4): 457–472.
Ranker, T.A.; Smith, A.R.; Parris, B.S.; Geiger, J.M.O.; Haufler, C.H.; Straub, S.C.K.; Schneider, H. 2004: Phylogeny and evolution of grammitid ferns (Grammitidaceae): a case of rampant morphological homoplasy. Taxon 53: 415–428.
Sundue, M.; Parris, B.S.; Ranker, T.A.; Smith, A.R.; Fujimoto, E.L.; Zamora-Crosby, D.; Morden, C.W.; Chiou, W.-L.; Chen, C.-W.; Rouhan, G.; Hirai, R.Y.; Prado, J. 2014: Global phylogeny and biogeography of grammitid ferns (Polypodiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 81: 195–206.
Tindale, M.D. 1961: Studies in Australian Pteridophytes. No. 3. Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium 3: 88–92.
Tindale, M.D.; Roy, S.K. 2002: A cytotaxonomic survey of the Pteridophyta of Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 15: 839–937.