Classification
 Nomenclature
Scientific Name:
Pinus L., Sp. Pl. 1000 (1753)
Vernacular Name(s):
Pine
 Description

Evergreen, resinous trees or, less commonly, shrubs;  bark usually rough and fissured;  branches regularly whorled, with long shoots bearing scale-like lvs; short shoots comprising a fascicle of 2, 3 or 5, very rarely 1, 4 or 6–8 lvs (needles), the fascicle base invested by a partly persistent or deciduous sheath (usually at least partly deciduous by the end of the first year).  Winter buds terminating shoots usually conspicuous, cylindric to ovoid, with numerous imbricate scales, generally entire or somewhat erose, often resinous.  Lvs needle-like, green, grey or glaucous, with 1–2 vascular bundles;  resin ducts 2 or more.  ♂ strobili (cones) replacing short shoots at base of the current season's long shoot, usually densely clustered, catkin-like, mainly cylindric, yellow to red prior to dehiscence.  ♀ cones (called conelets before fertilisation) subterminal or lateral, replacing short shoots, ripening in second or third year, purple, green or brown when young, mostly light to dark brown at maturity, often erect when young, later spreading to pendulous or recurved;  bracts scales very small, hidden, 0 in mature cone;  ovuliferous scales forming main part of cone, very variable, closing after pollination; apophysis (apical part) with an umbo (protuberance) distally, sometimes flattened, becoming hard or remaining soft (semi-woody), often with a prickle; ovules 2 to each scale.  Mature cone dehiscent or remaining closed, persistent or soon falling, sometimes leaving behind basal scales, symmetric or asymmetric.  Seed usually prominently and unilaterally winged, occasionally wingless.

[From:  Webb et al. (1988) Flora of New Zealand. Volume 4.]

 Biostatus
Exotic
Number of species in New Zealand within Pinus L.
CategoryNumber
Exotic: Fully Naturalised14
Exotic: Casual4
Exotic: Cultivated1
Total19
 Bibliography
Biosecurity New Zealand 2012: Regional Pest Management Strategies Database. http://www.biosecurityperformance.maf.govt.nz/
Farjon, A 2001: World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. Edition 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond.
Linnaeus, C. 1753: Species Plantarum. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.
Mabberley, D.J. 2008: Mabberley's plant book, a portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. Edition 3. Cambridge University Press.